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Principles of Mass Transfer and Separation Processes 

writer: Binay K. Dutta

 

 Contents:

1. INTRODUCTION

References

2. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION

2.1 Concentration, Velocity and Flux
2.2 Fick’s Law II
2.3 Steady State Molecular Diffusion through a Constant Area in a Binary
Gas Mixture
2.4 Multicomponent Diffusion
2.5 Gas-Phase Diffusion Coefficient: Measurement and Prediction
2.6 Molecular Diffusion in Liquids
2.7 Diffusion through a Variable Area
2.8 Knudsen Diffusion, Surface Diffusion and Self-Diffusion
2.9 Applications of the Principles of Molecular Diffusion
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

3. CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFER AND MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

3.1 The Mass Transfer Coefficient
3.2 Types of Mass Transfer Coefficients
3.3 Dimensionless Groups in Mass Transfer
3.4 Correlations for the Convective Mass Transfer Coefficient
3.5 Turbulent or Eddy Diffusion
3.6 The Wetted-Wall Column
3.7 Theories of Mass Transfer
3.8 Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer Analogies 
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

4. INTERPHASE MASS TRANSFER

4.1 Equilibrium between Phases
4.2 The Raoult’s and the Henry’s law
4.3 Mass Transfer between Two Phases
4.4 The Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient
4.5 Material Balance in a Contacting Equipment—the Operating Line
4.6 Mass Transfer in Stage-wise Contact of two Phases
4.7 Interphase Mass Transfer in Drug Delivery Systems
4.8 Applications
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

5. GAS—LlOUlD CONTACTING EQUIPMENT

5.1 Introduction to Gas—Liquid Contacting
5.2 Tray or Plate Column
5.3 Operational Features of a Tray Column
5.4 A Few Mechanical Details
5.5 Tray Design
5.6 High Capacity Trays
5.7 Agitated Vessels
5.8 The Bubble Column
5.9 The Spray Tower
5.10 The Venturi Scrubber
5.11 The Packed Tower
5.12 Flooding in a Packed Tower
5.13 Theoretical Models of Flow through a Packed Tower
5.14 Comparison between Packed and Plate Towers
Notations
Multiple Choice Questions
Short Questions
Problems
References

6. GAS ABSORPTION AND STRIPPING

6.1 Equilibrium in a Gas—Liquid System
6.2 Selection of Solvent and Stripping Medium
6.3 Minimum Liquid Rate for Absorption
6.4 Design of a Packed Tower
6.5 Correlations for Mass Transfer Coefficients in Packed Towers
6.6 Determination of the Number of Stages in a Tray Tower
6.7 Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP)
6.8 Tray Efficiency
6.9 Other Applications of Gas Absorption and Stripping
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

7. DISTILLATION

7.1 Vapour—Liquid Equilibrium
7.2 Enthalpy—Concentration Diagram
7.3 Flash Vaporization
7.4 Steam Distillation
7.5 Batch Distillation
7.6 Continuous Multistage Fractionation of Binary Mixtures
7.7 Multistage Batch Distillation with Reflux
7.8 The Ponchon—Savarit Method
7.9 Distillation in a Packed Tower
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

8. LlQUlD—LlQUlD EXTRACTION

8.1 A Few Examples of Solvent Extraction
8.2 Liquid—Liquid Equilibria (LLE)
8.3 Solvent Selection
8.4 Design Calculations for Stage-Wise Extraction
8.5 Liquid—Liquid Extraction Equipment
8.6 Selection of Extractors
8.7 Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer in a Stirred Liquid—Liquid
Dispersion
8.8 Extraction Equipment Design
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

9. SOLlD—LlQUlD EXTRACTION

9.1 Classification of Solid—Liquid Extraction Systems
9.2 The Rate of Solid—Liquid Extraction
9.3 Solid—Liquid Contacting Strategy
9.4 Solid—Liquid Contacting Equipment
9.5 Solid—Liquid Extraction Equilibrium
9.6 Solid—Liquid Extraction Calculations
9.7 Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

10. HUMIDIFICATION AND WATER COOLING

10.1 Terminology and Definitions
10.2 Adiabatic Saturation Temperature
10.3 Wet-Bulb Temperature
10.4 The Psychrometric Chart and Its Use
10.5 Description of Cooling ToWers—Construction and Operation
10.6 Cooling Tower Calculations
10.7 Some Additional Information on Cooling Towers
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

11. DRYING OF WET SOLIDS

11.1 Physical Mechanism of Drying
11.2 Drying Equilibria
11.3 Important Definitions and Terms
11.4 The Drying Rate Curve
11.5 Calculation of the Drying Time from the Drying Rate Data
11.6 Classification of Drying Equipment
11.7 Direct-Heat Batch Dryers: Tray and Truck Dryers
11.8 Direct-Heat Continuous Dryers
11.9 Indirect-Heat Batch Systems
11.10 Indirect-Heat Continuous Dryers
11.11 Air-Suspended Drying Systems
11.12 Drying Calculations
11.13 Preliminary Design of a Rotary Dryer
11.14 Freeze Drying Calculations
11.15 Dryer Selection
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

12. ADSORPTION

12.1 Commercial Adsorbents and Their Applications
12.2 Characteristics and Properties of Adsorbents
12.3 Adsorption Equilibria
12.4 Heat of Adsorption
12.5 Specific Surface Area of an Adsorbent
12.6 Selection of Adsorbents
12.7 Batch Adsorption in a Stirred Vessel
12.8 Adsorption in a Fixed Bed
12.9 Adsorption Equipment
12.10 Adsorption Dynamics
12.11 Thermal Regeneration of Adsorbents
12.12 Pressure Swing Adsorption
12.13 Ion-Exchange
12.14 Chromatography
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

13. CRYSTALLIZATION

13.1 Solid—Liquid Phase Equilibrium
13.2 Nucleation and Crystal Growth
13.3 Crystal Growth
13.4 Crystal Size Distribution
13.5 Characteristics of Crystal Size Distribution
13.6 Batch Crystallization
13.7 Crystallization Equipment
13.8 Design Considerations
13.9 Melt Crystallization
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

14. MEMBRANE SEPARATION

14.1 Materials, Types and Preparation of Membranes
14.2 Membrane Characterization
14.3 Membrane Modules
14.4 Pressure-Driven Membrane Processes for Liquid Separation
14.5 Concentration-Driven Processes
14.6 Membrane Gas Separation
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

15. MULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION

15.1 Degrees of Freedom in Multicomponent Distillation
15.2 Key Components
15.3 Column Operating Conditions
15.4 Approximate Methods of Distillation Calculation—the F UG
Technique
15.5 Rigorous Methods of Distillation Calculation
15.6 The Rate-Based Method
15.7 Separation of Close-Boiling and Azeotropic Mixtures
15.8 Divided-Wall Columns
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

16. TRANSIENT DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER WITH CHEMICAL

REACTION

16.1 Transient Diffusion in Three Dimensions
16.2 Diffusion Accompanied by a Chemical Reaction in a Liquid
16.3 Irreversible Second-Order Reaction
16.4 Instantaneous Reaction
16.5 Reaction Regimes of a Second-Order Reaction
Notations
Short and Multiple Choice Questions
Problems
References

A.1 Vapour—Liquid Equilibria  
A.2 K-Values of Hydrocarbons
A.3 Dispersion in a Flow Field
References
ANS WERS/HINTS TO SELECTED QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS
INDEX


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